Overview of courses taught in English 2019-2020
EXFLL1 Friluftsliv: Philosophy and Practice (10 ECTS) 
Course facts
Course codeEXFLL1
Course titleFriluftsliv: Philosophy and Practice
Course languageEnglish
Academic responsibleElisabeth Kjeldahl Nilsson
Teaching semesterFall

This course provides students with an introducion to philosophies relevant to friluftsliv as a socio-cultural phenomenon. The course will address the ideas that have shaped Norwegian friluftsliv over time, and the contemporary contexts, practices and meanings associated with it. Key themes will be: the development of outdoor life in philosophy in Norwegian cultural history; the influence of social change on friluftsliv practices; the cultural significance of friluftsliv in Norway; philosophies of nature and environment in friluftsliv; the nature of socio-cultural knowledge about friluftsliv. Students will be encouraged to think critically about these themes. The course is organized around practical explorations, classroom sessions and individual study.

Learning outcome

Students shall:

  • be able to critically reflect on personal explorations and experiences of key practices, ideas and basic skills in friluftsliv
  • be able to demonstrate an understanding of the origin, development and significance of friluftsliv as a concept and sosio-cultural phenomenon
  • be able to critically reflect on relationships between friluftsliv and contemporary socio-cultural issues
Course organization

The coursebuilds on EXFLL2, Experiential Learning in "Natural" Landscapes. It is ly taught in combination with the field trips in EXFLL2, , and partly as lectures and seminars organized around key concepts, learning experiences, research literature and other texts. Students must be actively involved and contribute to all issues under consideration throughout the  course and field trips in EXFLL2. In addition, this course requires approximately 160 hours of self-directed study.


Full participation in scheduled outdoor activities in this course is mandatory. To be considered to have completed the course, students must also attend and participate fully in at least 80% of lectures and other class sessions.

Students must submit an individual written essay of a maximum of 6000 words, exclusive table of content, reference list and attachments. The topic is given by the teaching staff. All sources must be accurately cited and referenced using APA format (see www.nih.no). The essay is graded A-F.

All papers submitted via WISEflow will be run through Urkund for plagiarism control.


Core material


1 DIGITAL COMPENDIUM - through Canvas:

Rosenberg, A. (Ed.). (2019). EXFLL1: Friluftsliv: Philosophy and Practice: Fall 2019. (Digital compendium). Oslo: Norges idrettshøgskole.
** This PDF is available through Canvas.

The Reference list for the Digital Compendium, alphabetical in APA-standard:

Ferraro, G. (2012). The concept of culture. I: G. Ferraro, Cultural anthropology: An applied perspective. (pp. 26-55). New York: West Publishing.

Gurholt, K. P. (2005). Nature narratives: Norwegian youth negotiating local traditions, national myths and global trends. In: B. Humberstone & R. Nicol (Eds.), Old traditions and new trends: Examining what is continuous and what is changing in young people's lives and outdoor experiential learning: 7th European Seminar 2004 of the European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning in partnership with Brathay Academy. (pp. 13-23). Ambleside: Brathay Hall Trust.

Gurholt, K. P. (2008). Norwegian friluftsliv as bildung: A critical review. In: P. Becker & J. Schirp (Eds.), Other ways of learning: The European Institute for outdoor adventure education and experiential learning 1996-2006. (pp. 131-154). Marburg: BSJ.

O'Connell, T. & Cuthbertson, B. (2009). Group formation, development, and function. In: T. O'Connell & B. Cuthbertson, Group dynamics in recreation and leisure: Creating conscious groups through an experiential approach. (pp. 15-34). USA: Human Kinetics.

O'Connell, T. & Cuthbertson, B. (2009). Group Leadership. In: T. O'Connell & B. Cuthbertson, Group dynamics in recreation and leisure: Creating conscious groups through an experiential approach. (pp. 109-116). USA: Human Kinetics.

O'Connell, T. & Cuthbertson, B. (2009). The consious group. In: T. O'Connell & B. Cuthbertson, Group dynamics in recreation and leisure: Creating conscious groups through an experiential approach. (pp. 35-44). USA: Human Kinetics.

Plummer, R. (2008). The concept and study of outdoor recreation. I: R. Plummer, Outdoor recreation: An Introduction. (pp. 13-30). New York: Routledge.

Reed, P. & Rothenberg, D. (1993). Introduction: Deep ecology from summit to blockade. In: P. Reed & D. Rothenberg (Eds.), Wisdom in the open air: The Norwegian roots of deep ecology. (pp. 1-35). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Solenes, O. & Goksøyr, M. (2004). Nature and the Norwegian working class: A historical study of discourse and practice ca. 1900-1940In: J. M. Delaplace, S. Villaret & W. Chameyrat (Eds.), Sport et nature dans l'histoire: Proceedings of the 7th ISHPES Congress, Montpellier, 26-31 Août 2001. (ISHPES studies; 10). (pp. 270-274). Sankt Augustin: Academia.

Taylor, P. (2011). Defining leisure. In: P. Taylor, Torkildsen’s sport and leisure management (6th ed.). (pp. 16-23). London: Routledge.

Vereide, V. & Gurholt, K. P. (2009). Being a male educator with family. In: I. Turvova & A. Martin (Eds.), Outdoor activities in educational and recreational programmes. (pp. 119-129). Prague: IYNF.

Gelter, H. (2000). Friluftsliv: The Scandinavian philosophy of outdoor life. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 55(1), 77-92.
* Available online: Click here to download.

Goksøyr, M. (2002). Skis as national symbols, ski tracks as historical traits: The case of  Norway. (Keynote paper for the International Ski History Congress, Park City, UT.).
* Available as PDF through Canvas.
(OK based on §15 of the Copyright Law)

Nedrelid, T. (1991). Use of nature as a Norwegain characteristic: Myths and reality. Ethnologia Scandinavica, 21, 20-33.
* Available as PDF through Canvas.
(OK based on §15 of the Copyright Law)

Tordsson, B. (2010). The mythological roots of friluftsliv. In: B. Tordsson, Friluftsliv, kultur og samfunn [Friluftsliv, Culture and Society]. (pp. 84-104). Kristiansand: Høyskoleforlaget.
* Available as PDF through Canvas.
(OK based on §15 of the Copyright Law)

Ministry of Environment (1957). Act of 28 June 1957 No.16 relating to outdoor recreation. Retrieved 8. May 2019 from http://www.regjeringen.no/en/doc/Laws/Acts/Outdoor-Recreation-Act.html?id=172932
* The document is available online: Click here to download.

Ministry of Environment (2013). Right to roam. (M-86). Retreived 9. May 2019 from http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/Documents/publikasjoner/M86/M86.pdf
* The document is available online: Click here to download.

The Ministry of the Environment (2010). Report extract: The nature experience and mental health: Report of the "Outdoor life and mental helath" Nordic project. Retreived 9. May 2019 from https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/t-1474-e-the-nature-experience-and-menta/id578787/
* The document is available online: Click here to download.

Aall, C., Klepp, I. G., Leivestad, H. H. & Holden, E. (2008). Leisure time consumption: Part of the problem or part of the solution in transforming into sustainable consumption? In: T. G. Ken, A. Tukker, C. Vezzoli & F. Ceschin (Eds.), Sustainable consumption and production: Framework for a: 2nd Conference of the Sustainable Consumption Research Exchange (SCORE!) Network: Monday 10 and Tuesday March 2008. Halles des Tanneurs, Brussel, Belgium. (s. 285-301). Retreived 9. May 2019 from http://www.unep.fr/scp/marrakech/pdf/Score_Action_Plan_21_PDF.pdf
* The document is available online: Click here to download.

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