SPM120 Performance-enhancement and anti-doping in Sport and Society (5 ECTS) 

Course facts

Course code
Course title
Performance-enhancement and anti-doping in Sport and Society
Course language
Academic responsible
Sigmund Loland


The course offers a research- and practice based multi-disciplinary overview of the use of image- and performance-enhancing means and methods (PEIMs) in sport and society. 
The first topic is definitional and conceptual: How can we categorize PEIMs, and what is their regulation in sport (anti-doping), and in society (laws). 
A second topic covers their prevalence and use and is based on epidemiological and sociological perspectives, and how to prevent problematic PEIM use. 
Thirdly, the norms and values involved in dealing with PEIMs are discussed and PEIM use is examined from an ethical point of view. During the course, there will be an emphasis on linking research-based insight sto policymaking and practice. 

Learning outcomes

After having completed the course the students shall be able to

  • define and categorize PEIMs and describe their regulation in sport (anti-doping) and in society (laws and regulations)
  • describe and offer explanations of the prevalence of various PEIMs in sport and society
  • discuss critically and systematically the ethics of the use of PEIMs in sport and society
  • contribute to evidence-based and informed policies in dealing with PEIMs in sport and society

Learning styles and activities

Online teaching is built on three modules. The modules consist of written text and video-clips which also include tests and encourage the students to reflect on the topics.

Mandatory assignment

  • All pages in each module must be completed. The online-learning platform "Canvas" will automatically control the progress.
  • At the end of every module, the student must submit a reflection note on an assigned topic. The reflection note will be evaluated with pass/fail.

All reflection notes must be passed to qualify for the final home exam.


The final home exam exists of two or three different questions with student responses of about 2500 words. The exam is graded A-F.

Texts are to be submitted via the software Wiseflow. 

Core material

To be submitted.